Software is the programs and procedures that direct computers to perform useful work. Software applications can be found in every aspect of modern life from life-critical medical-monitoring devices and nuclear power plants to entertainment video-games. Complex software guides space missions while simple software controls microwave ovens.
Many software products contain millions of lines of code that are expected to perform properly in the face of changing conditions.
Software generally needs to be reliable (with the consequences of failure ranging from annoying to deadly) and needs to be produced economically. Software engineering aims to address these needs. Software engineering techniques are intended to improve the functionality and reliability of software, while improving the efficiency and easing the task of software development.
The SE community includes 630,000 practitioners and educators in the U.S. and an estimated 1,400,000 practitioners in the E.U., Asia, and elsewhere; it is about 60% the size of traditional engineering. SE pioneers include Barry Boehm, Fred Brooks, C. A. R. Hoare, and David Parnas. There is extensive debate about what SE is, who qualifies as an SE, who sets the standards, etc.
Software engineering today
Impact of software engineering
Software engineering affects economies and societies in many ways.
In the U.S., software drove about 1/4 of all increase in GDP during the 1990s (about $90 billion per year), and 1/6 of all productivity growth (efficiency within GDP) during the late 1990s (about $33 billion per year).Software engineering drove $1 trillion of economic and productivity growth over the last decade.
Around the world,
software drives economic growth in similar ways, though reliable statistics are hard to find.
Software engineering changes world culture, wherever people use computers. Email, the world-wide web, and instant messaging enable people to interact in new ways. Software lowers the cost and improves the quality of health-care, fire departments, and other important social services.
Successful projects where software engineering methods have been applied include Linux, the space shuttle software, and automatic teller machines. When it is cheaper to run a business or agency with software applications than without, businesses and agencies often invest in computers, software, and personnel.
See also software engineering economics.
Room for improvement
In spite of the enormous economic growth and productivity gains enabled by software, persistent complaints about the quality remain.
Deficient software engineering is often blamed for project failures when the blame might more properly be placed with business managers who ignore lessons already learned by Software Engineers.
See also Debates within software engineering and Criticism of software engineering
People from many different educational backgrounds make important contributions to SE. The fraction of practitioners who earn computer science or software engineering degrees has been slowly rising. Today, about 1/2 of all software engineers earn computer science or software engineering degrees. For comparison, about 3/4 of all traditional engineers earn engineering degrees.
is the profession concerned with creating and maintaining software applications by applying technologies and practices from computer science, project management, engineering, application domains, and other
Kuala Lumpur, Mar 17 (ANI): A building in Malaysia that houses at least eight civil courts is deemed to be haunted after court officials claimed to have experienced paranormal activities.
A court policeman claimed the ghostly incidents occurred shortly after the courts moved into the towering Menara Cyberport at Jalan Bukit Meldrum, formerly called Menara Sarawak, in January.
Senior court officials sought the help of a bomoh to "cleanse" the 30-storey building of "dozens of spirits and ghosts" after a court employee became hysterical when she reportedly saw several apparitions in her office.
"A court employee went into hysteria after she 'brushed into' a ghost," the Star Online quoted the policeman as saying.
"Several others had also seen ghosts or doors opening or closing on their own," the policeman stated.
A court interpreter said many staff members were shaken by such incidents and sought the help of a policeman, who acted as a medium, to get rid of the spirits.
Former Johor Bar chairman K. Balarajah admitted he had heard of some strange happenings in the courtrooms, and that the judges had also expressed their uneasiness about the matter.
"I received at least three complaints from lawyers about strange occurrences and sightings at the building," he said.
"I have been there a few times but have not experienced anything personally," he added. (ANI)
Maggot therapy (also known as maggot debridement therapy (MDT), larval therapy, larva therapy, larvae therapy, biodebridement or biosurgery) is a type of biotherapy involving the intentional introduction of live, disinfected maggots (fly larvae) into the non-healing skin and soft tissue wound(s) of a human or animal for the purposes of selectively cleaning out only the necrotic tissue within a wound (debridement), disinfection, and promotion of wound healing.
Written records have documented that maggots have been used since antiquity as a wound treatment. There are reports of the successful use of maggots for wound healing by Maya Indians and Aboriginal tribes in Australia. There also have been reports of the use of maggot treatment in Renaissance times. During warfare, many military physicians observed that soldiers whose wounds had become colonized with maggots experienced significantly less morbidity and mortality than soldiers whose wounds had not become colonized. These physicians included Napoleon’s general surgeon, Baron Dominique Larrey, who reported during France's Egyptian campaign in Syria, 1798–1801, that certain species of fly destroyed only dead tissue and had a positive effect on wound healing.
Dr. Joseph Jones, a ranking Confederate medical officer during the American Civil War, is quoted as follows, "I have frequently seen neglected wounds ... filled with maggots ... as far as my experience extends, these worms only destroy dead tissues, and do not injure specifically the well parts." The first therapeutic use of maggots is credited to a second Confederate medical officer Dr. J.F. Zacharias, who reported during the American Civil War that, "Maggots ... in a single day would clean a wound much better than any agents we had at our command ... I am sure I saved many lives by their use." He recorded a high survival rate in patients he treated with maggots.
During World War I, Dr. William S. Baer, an orthopedic surgeon, recognized on the battlefield the efficacy of maggot colonization for healing wounds. He observed one soldier left for several days on the battlefield who had sustained compound fractures of the femur and large flesh wounds of the abdomen and scrotum. When the soldier arrived at the hospital, he had no signs of fever despite the serious nature of his injuries and his prolonged exposure to the elements without food or water. When his clothes were removed, it was seen that "thousands and thousands of maggots filled the entire wounded area." To Dr. Baer's surprise, when these maggots were removed "there was practically no bare bone to be seen and the internal structure of the wounded bone as well as the surrounding parts was entirely covered with most beautiful pink tissue that one could imagine." This case took place at a time when the death rate for compound fractures of the femur was about 75-80%.
While at Johns Hopkins University in 1929, Dr. Baer introduced maggots into 21 patients with intractable chronic osteomyelitis. He observed rapid debridement, reductions in the number of pathogenic organisms, reduced odor levels, alkalinization of wound beds, and ideal rates of healing. All 21 patients' open lesions were completely healed and they were released from the hospital after two months of maggot therapy.
After the publication of Dr. Baer's results in 1931, maggot therapy for wound care became very common, particularly in the United States. The Lederle pharmaceutical company commercially produced "Surgical Maggots", larvae of the green bottle fly, which primarily feed on the necrotic tissue of the living host without attacking living tissue. Between 1930 and 1940, more than 100 medical papers were published on maggot therapy. Medical literature of this time contains many references to the successful use of maggots in chronic or infected wounds including osteomyelitis, abscesses, burns, sub-acute mastoiditis, and chronic empyema.
More than 300 American hospitals employed maggot therapy during the 1940s. The extensive use of maggot therapy prior to World War II was curtailed when the discovery and growing use of penicillin caused it to be deemed outdated. Due to the lack of conventional medicines, maggot therapy was used by Allied military medical staff in Japanese prisoner of war camps in the Far East throughout World War II.